2004 IEEE Radar Conference

Innovative Radar Technologies - Expanding System Capabilities

 
 
 April 26-29, 2004 Wyndham Philadelphia at Franklin Plaza Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
 
 
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Student Paper 1:

Tue, 27 April 2004, 9:30 AM - 10:20 AM


1.1 Application of diffraction technology to UWB SAR research
1.2 UWB radar improvement using a system with several antennas
1.3 Optimization of a monobit FFT radar intereceiver using a genetic algorithm
1.4 Physical scale modeling of VHF/UHF SAR collection geometries
1.5 Space-time adaptive processing for forward looking arrays
1.6 Design of an ultra high-speed all-optical analog-to-digital converter
1.7 MATLAB-based ERS SAR data acquisition and processing software for classroom use
1.8 GLRT-detection performance in subsurface sounding
1.9 S-band integrated digital broadband receiver
1.10 STAP Detection Using Space-Time Autoregressive Filtering
1.11 On alpha-beta target tracking: the probability of target escape
1.12 Linear Array Design using Bayesian Parameter Estimation
1.13 Drift inversion estimation of multipath ghosts in SAR image reconstruction

1.1 Application of diffraction technology to UWB SAR research
By: Rui-Feng Xue
Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
and: Bin Yuan
Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
and: Jun-Fa Mao
Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China

The application of diffraction technology to ultra wideband synthetic aperture radars (UWB SARs) was investigated to find an optimal solution to high-quality radar imagery. The microwave imagery criterion is presented and the spatial frequency coverage is introduced to evaluate imaging systems at first. Then radar imagery is analyzed with the comprehensive consideration of the scattering mechanisms, the data acquisition system, and the image reconstruction algorithm. Theoretical and numerical results show UWB SAR exploiting diffraction technology has the potential to realize high-resolution geometric imaging and probe inherent physical properties of targets. This will provide a theoretical basis for formation flight and optimization of SAR systems.

1.2 UWB radar improvement using a system with several antennas
By: Cyril Dubois
IRCOM University of Limoges France
and: Bernard JECKO
IRCOM University of Limoges France

PULSAR is an Ultra Wide-Band radar developed in a collaboration between the CELAR (French Technical Centre for Armament Electronics) and the IRCOM (Research Institute of Microwave and Optical Communications) in order to detect quickly buried mines on a large area. This paper deals with the recent development efforts on this system, especially on a new pulse generator and a new UWB antenna. It also deals with the possibility to use several antennas to build an antennas array in order to improve the radar (axis gain higher, radiating pattern more directing).

1.3 Optimization of a monobit FFT radar intereceiver using a genetic algorithm
By: Roberto Gomez-Garcia
Universidad Politecnica de Madrid
and: Mateo Burgos-Garcia
Universidad Politecnica de Madrid

Real-time implementation of electronic warfare digital receivers is strongly constrained by the limited operation rate of data processing blocks. This problem can be partially overcome by using monobit DFT instead of conventional DFT algorithm. The main disadvantage of monobit approximation lies on the increase of false alarm probability (PFA). In this paper an alternative data processing block based on a filter bank is proposed. This is achieved by means of a genetic algorithm optimization of the monobit DFT filter bank. Detection probability - false alarm probability performance (PD-PFA) of digital receiver by using the optimized filter bank is also discussed.

1.4 Physical scale modeling of VHF/UHF SAR collection geometries
By: Christopher J Beaudoin
University of Massachusetts Lowell Submillimeter-Wave Technology Laboratory
and: Andrew Gatesman
University of Massachusetts Lowell Submillimeter-Wave Technology Laboratory
and: Jerry Waldman
University of Massachusetts Lowell Submillimeter-Wave Technology Laboratory
and: Robert Giles
University of Massachusetts Lowell Submillimeter-Wave Technology Laboratory
and: Mark Clinard
University of Massachusetts Lowell Submillimeter-Wave Technology Laboratory
and: William Nixon
U.S. Army National Ground Intelligence Center

A method of physically modeling a linear flight path SAR collection in a scale-model VHF/UHF ISAR facility is presented. Accurate modeling of a SAR?s collection geometry is necessary if meaningful comparisons are to be made between scale-model and field imagery. The advantage of collecting data in a linear flight path geometry is that height-unlimited focusing of scatterers can be achieved. The technique utilizes precise orientation of the target?s azimuth and elevation relative to the fixed radar antenna, thereby effectively simulating a linear flight path collection. The impact of such a collection at VHF/UHF frequencies is demonstrated by comparing linear flight path ISAR imagery with traditional fixed grazing angle ISAR imagery. Both simulated and instrumented imagery will be presented.

1.5 Space-time adaptive processing for forward looking arrays
By: James T. Caldwell
Air Force Institute of Technology
and: Todd B. Hale
Air Force Institute of Technology

This paper applies Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) to forward looking arrays. Traditionally, STAP research provides results for a sidelooking array where a linear relationship exists between clutter Doppler and azimuth sine. This relationship does not hold in the forward looking case. Additionally, mainbeam clutter in the sidelooking boresight case is range independent and, consequently, the clutter notch is always at zero hertz. In contrast, mainbeam clutter is range dependent in the forward looking case, resulting in multiple clutter notches for range ambiguous clutter. This range dependency corrupts the independent, identically distributed assumption required for the samples used in covariance estimation. The assumption can still be applied for a small data set, e.g., small range extent. Therefore, partially adaptive techniques with fewer Degrees of Freedom and correspondingly smaller sample support requirements must be used. Results are presented in the form of clutter Power Spectral Density, Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio, Improvement Factor, antenna patterns, and Detection Probability.

1.6 Design of an ultra high-speed all-optical analog-to-digital converter
By: X Hou
Drexel University

An all-optical analog-to-digital converter capable of sampling at 50GS/s is described. The ADC works in the spectral domain as opposed to the other techniques of all-optical or hybrid methods. The RF signal is sampled by electro-optically steerable gratings and quantized by a set of detectors with scalable apertures. Low timing jitter is provided by a mode-locked laser.

1.7 MATLAB-based ERS SAR data acquisition and processing software for classroom use
By: Avinash V. Uppuluri
Utah State University
and: Randy J. Jost
Utah State University

This paper provides a review into the steps involved in acquiring and processing of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, transmitted by the European Remote Sensing (ERS) satellites. The objective of the paper is to report on a simple MATLAB-based SAR processing system, that would read the image out of the complex SAR data files and that is suitable for use in the classroom to demonstrate one of the procedures used in SAR data processing. This paper would also help a beginner in the field of SAR signal processing to get information and understand the basics that would be necessary to acquire and process a SAR image. The data, provided by the Alaskan Satellite Facility (ASF), is categorized into different levels and this paper describes the process of obtaining the level-1 basic image from the level-0 raw data file provided by ASF.

1.8 GLRT-detection performance in subsurface sounding
By: Massimo Sciotti
INFOCOM Dpt., University of Rome La Sapienza
and: Debora Pastina
INFOCOM Dpt., University of Rome La Sapienza
and: Pierfrancesco Lombardo
INFOCOM Dpt., University of Rome La Sapienza

The performance of subsurface deep sounding is investigated with reference to the radar sounder MARSIS, aboard the Mars Express mission, designed to investigate the presence of water-related interfaces in the subsurface of Mars. The analysis proposed in this paper aims at providing the necessary tools for (i) performance prediction and (ii) data processor design. To this aim, by using well known models for the backscattered signal, we compare the expected Signal-to-Clutter Ratio values under most of the instrument operative conditions. The Generalized Likelihood Ratio approach is followed for subsurface interface detection, and along-track integration is introduced in order to achieve the desired performance. In particular, we address the design of the integration window, and the requirements of data homogeneity. A thorough performance analysis is presented to cope with the expected MARSIS scenarios. In particular, we investigate several sources of mismatch between the assumed model and collected data, and derive the performance degradation due to each source.

1.9 S-band integrated digital broadband receiver
By: Liming Zhou
Drexel University
and: Mitesh Patel
NAWC-AD
and: Gregory B Strzalka
Lockheed Martin Missile and Surface Radar Division
and: Ryan C Spring
Drexel University
and: Afshin S Daryoush
Drexel University

Abstract- Digital receivers are pursued as part of future civilian and military applications. Design and implementation of a broadband receiver is presented that operates for radar applications at S-band. Performance of the realized hardware is evaluated in terms of system parameters.

1.10 STAP Detection Using Space-Time Autoregressive Filtering
By: John A. Russ
Brigham Young University
and: David W. Casbeer
Electrical Engineering BYU
and: A. Lee Swindlehurst
Brigham Young University

Application of Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) in real situations requires dimension-reducing methods. This is due to both the large computational cost involved in calculating the interference statistics and the smaller number of stationary training samples available to estimate the clutter covariance. Recently, auto-regressive (AR) filtering techniques have been used to help reduce computation and secondary sample support requirements in STAP scenarios. In this paper, we compare the detection performance of several AR-based algorithms with more standard GLRT-type approaches. In particular, we consider the Parametric Amplitude Matched Filter (PAMF) and the Space-Time Auto-Regressive Filter (STAR), and show that they outperform standard GLRT tests, especially in challenging situations with low sample support. Among the parametric methods considered, the STAR approach provides the most robust overall performance.

1.11 On alpha-beta target tracking: the probability of target escape
By: Sofia Daka
Drexel University
and: Paul R. Kalata
Drexel University

This paper considers the discrete time Kalman and H∞ approach to the two-state α-β target tracking problem. A closed form steady-state solution for the α-β parameter selection for H∞ tracker, which is similar to the Tracking Index process for the MSE (Kalman) criterion, is presented. The H∞ and Kalman processes model the radar/target system with the objective to keep the target within the radar beamwidth. The two trackers will be compared considering two cases that differ in the input maneuver disturbances, random maneuver and constant acceleration. An example illustrates the performance of the α-β tracker with respect to keeping the target within the beamwidth in terms of probability of escape.

1.12 Linear Array Design using Bayesian Parameter Estimation
By: Atef Z Elsherbeni
University of Mississippi
and: John M. Earwood
The University of Mississippi
and: Matthew J. Inman
The University of Mississippi

In the course of designing and optimizing arrays, many difficulties are often experienced. Due to the complex nature of modern arrays, finding the optimal configuration from scratch can be a challenging task. Many synthesis options are available for certain array types, however they are not without their problems as well. This paper will deal with a technique for optimizing an array using Bayesian sampling and inference techniques. This technique can be applied to any array with any configuration to determine the best fitting parameters for a given radiation pattern. Also to be discussed includes how the procedure is implemented in a modern programming methods and its applicability to parallelization. Results will show that this method allows for the examination of an entire parameter space so that the best parameters for an arbitrary linear array can be quickly and efficiently examined.

1.13 Drift inversion estimation of multipath ghosts in SAR image reconstruction
By: Danielle R. Obuchon
SAIC
and: David A. Garren
SAIC
and: J. Scott Goldstein
SAIC
and: Robert R. Greene
SAIC
and: Jan A. North
Lt. Col., USAF; SAF/ST

Conventional SAR image formation includes the effects of only direct-scattering events. However, multipath events can be included in the measured phase history data. These multipath effects appear as "ghosts" in SAR images, thereby creating adverse image reconstructions. In order to separate the direct scatterers from the multipath scattering effects, an Image Reconstruction Algorithm for Multipath Scattering (IRAMS) is applied. This method incorporates a wavelet-like inversion estimate of the multipath ghosts.

 
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© Copyright 2004, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.