2004 IEEE Radar Conference

Innovative Radar Technologies - Expanding System Capabilities

 April 26-29, 2004 Wyndham Philadelphia at Franklin Plaza Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
HomeConf InfoProgramPapersTutorialsExhibitsSponsorsAuthorsNewsParticipant Login

Tutorial 5: Thursday Afternoon Tutorials

Thu, 29 April 2004, 1:30 PM - 5:30 PM

5.1 Radar Tracking and Track Filtering
5.2 Pulse Compression in Radar Systems
5.3 Open Architecture Radar Software
5.4 Space-Based Radar
5.5 Phased Array Design and Applications

5.1 Radar Tracking and Track Filtering
By: Dr. Yaakov BarShalom
Univ. of Conneticut

Review of the Basic Techniques for Tracking. The Kalman, the Alpha-Beta(-Gamma) and the Extended Kalman filters: their capabilities and limitations. Debiased consistent measurement conversion from polar to Cartesian that allows the use of optimal linear filters in practical problems (implemented in the E-2C upgrade; applicable to long-range AEW radars).

The Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) estimation algorithm - a real-time implementable, self-adjusting variable-bandwidth, tracking filter.

Tracking in Clutter: The Probabilistic Data Association filter (PDAF).

Agile Beam Radar Allocation and ECM: The NSWC Benchmark Problem II for high-g targets in the presence of RGPO and jamming. Radar management (detection threshold, waveform, and revisit time selection, target RCS and jammer power estimation) and tracking with the IMMPDAF. Comparison with the MHT (Multiple Hypothesis Tracker). The real-time experiment with an Aegis SPY-1 and F-14s at Wallops.

Air Traffic Control Tracking: IMM vs. KF on real data (800 targets, from 5 FAA/JSS radars). How to evaluate estimation improvement without knowing the ground truth. Why multisensor tracking is cheaper computationally than single sensor tracking.

Large-Scale Tracking of Ground Targets: The Variable Structure IMM (VS-IMM) with topographic information and road constraints for precision tracking of ground targets with airborne GMTI radars. Application to a Joint STARS scenario. Evaluation of VSIMM vs. IMM and different depth assignment (optimization based MHT) algorithms. GEOP (Geometric enhancement of precision) from multiple (asynchronous) radar data fusion.

Acquisition of LO Targets: Track formation for low SNR targets. The CRLB in the presence of false measurements. The limit of extractable track information from cluttered data. Acquisition of a 4dB SNR TBM target with an ESA radar. The ML-PDA estimator applied to real EO data. Comparison with the MHT.

This Tutorial has a recommended book:

MULTITARGET-MULTISENSOR TRACKING: PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES, 1995 Yaakov Bar-Shalom and Xiao-Rong Li Softcover. 8 1/2" x 11". Approx. 630 pages, 1001 equations, 250 figures, 200 references. ISBN 0-9648312-0-1.

You may order the book for 20% off = $96.00 (with free shipping) from Yaakov Bar-Shalom, 860-486-4823, or email ybs@ee.uconn.edu. Please order the book before April 15th, 2004 in order to receive it at your home before leaving for the conference (before April 23, 2004).

5.2 Pulse Compression in Radar Systems
By: Dr. Marvin Cohen
Georgia Tech Research Institute

In the introduction, the principles, motivations, and terminology related to radar pulse compression are presented and discussed. The general concepts of range resolution, range sidelobes, and processing losses are developed. The lecture continues with an in-depth discussion of specific pulse compression techniques.

Frequency coding techniques including linear frequency modulation, non-linear frequency modulation, Stretch, and stepped frequency modulation are presented. Biphase codes such as Barker, Combined Barker, pseudorandom, minimum peak sidelobe, and Golay codes are explained and illustrated. Polyphase codes such as Welti, Frank, and P4 codes are exhibited and discussed as well. Hybrid phase and frequency codes are introduced.

Mismatch filtering for range sidelobe suppression is presented - both the classical weighting functions for linear frequency modulated waveforms, as well as various lesser-known weighting functions for phase-coded waveforms. The tradeoffs between resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and range sidelobe levels are quantified.

The Doppler response of the various pulse compression techniques is explored via analysis of the radar ambiguity diagram. Frequency-modulated and phase-modulated waveforms of comparable bandwidth and pulsewidth are compared as to their Doppler response.

The lecture concludes with a summary comparison of simple-pulse, frequency-modulated, and phase-modulated radar waveforms and their potential applications. An extensive bibliography is included.

5.3 Open Architecture Radar Software
By: Mr. Andrew J. Winkler
Lockheed Martin, MS2
and: Mr. Ray Simons
Computer Sciences Corporation

This tutorial will provide the radar systems engineer and/or system architect with an introduction to what should be expected from software that is produced for open systems. Benefits of open software in terms of cost, schedule, and quality will be presented from a software developer?s point of view using lessons learned and examples generally falling within the category of real time command and control software. Amplification of the term ?open? when applied to software architecture and design will be presented in conjunction with a discussion of Navy guidelines for developing software for open systems. The discussion of open attributes for software will rely heavily on specific examples from recent IR&D projects in the area of radar control software for sea based phased array radars. The tutorial will also include, as applicable, discussions of some of the software support tools and development processes that have either been used successfully or appear to have merit. As a result of this session the systems developer should have a better understanding of both the benefits and pitfalls of open systems software development.

5.4 Space-Based Radar
By: Dr. William L. Melvin
Georgia Tech Research Institute

The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce the participant to aspects of space-based moving target indication (MTI) and synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Our talk incorporates material from a space-based radar tutorial given at the 2001 IEEE Radar Conference and popular courses given at Georgia Tech. The target audience includes practicing radar engineers seeking to enhance their understanding of specific space-based radar issues, as well as engineering managers looking to identify critical issues and important considerations.

Topics covered in this four-hour tutorial include the following:

Goals of spaceborne radar

Orbital properties of spaceborne radar

A review of MTI radar basics

Unique aspects of space-based moving target indication

An introduction to space-time adaptive processing (STAP) for space-based ground moving target indication (GMTI)

STAP architectures and displaced phase center antenna (DPCA) processing

Analysis of a space-based GMTI signal processing architecture

A review of SAR basics

Application of SAR in spaceborne radar

A space-based radar design example solidifying MTI and SAR concepts

We devote roughly half the course to MTI radar topics, one-quarter of the allotted time to SAR, and one-quarter to our space-based radar introduction and design example.

5.5 Phased Array Design and Applications
By: Dr. Leonard Yorinks
Lockheed Martin, MS2
and: Mr. Christopher Kebalo
Lockheed Martin, MS2
and: Mr. John Fraschilla
Lockheed Martin, MS2

Phased array antennas an enabling technology for modern radar systems, provide the diversity needed to raise the performance of radar systems far beyond the capabilities of rotating antenna radars of the past. Today?s modern phased arrays incorporate active components for high average transmit power, superior low noise performance, and independent element level phase and amplitude control. They can operate over narrow-band and octave-bandwidths, exhibit polarization diversity, and produce single and multiple beams. Multi-function phased arrays can perform radar, communication, and EW operations simultaneously. With the development of digital beamforming techniques, phased array technology will again take a significant leap to provide the functionality required by tomorrow?s radar missions.

This tutorial will focus on the basic principles of phased array antennas including phase and time-delay steering, grating lobes, antenna errors, beam shaping and synthesis, radiating elements, and feed designs. The course will then explore the design of active phased arrays including TR Modules, MMIC device capabilities, stability, antenna calibration, and required antenna support systems. Applications of phased array technology will be discussed with examples from current and future systems. Finally, digital beamforming, synthesis, applications, and technology advances will be explored.

To Top

© Copyright 2004, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.